Besides surface pollutant of urban and rural areas, waste is very high pollutant of soil, air and especially groundwater and surface water in their places of disposal. Pathogen microorganisms in the waste are viable for a long period of time and they cause many infectious diseases.
Moreover, in places of accumulation, where air has limited access there are processes of decay, which release harmful gases: hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and others. Water passing through stratum of accumulated waste is also highly polluted.
Combustion of the waste in landfills leads to unacceptable pollution of the atmosphere with volatile dust, harmful aromatic compounds, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur. The problem is exacerbated by the uncontrolled mixing of domestic industrial solid waste and concentrated.
Why recycling is necessary?
Each year in the member states are produce about 2 billion tons of waste including dangerous waste in particular and this figure is constantly increasing. The storage of these wastes is not a good solution as well as their destruction is not sufficiently effective because of exhausted emissions and their highly concentrated and polluting residues. The best solution is to prevent production of these wastes and to re-enter them into the production cycle by recycling their components. The European Union has a framework for coordinated management in member countries to reduce waste generation and to organize the best way for their processing and elimination.
Conversion of raw materials into components for new products. This way we preserve valuable natural resources and reduces the amount of waste. Secondary use of raw materials means decrease using of natural resources which can be use for development of new metal compounds, such as the iron ore for steel, nickel for stainless steel or bauxite for producing aluminum.
Furthermore, recycling contributes to significant reduction of energy and CO2 emissions in production methods.
If we recycle 1 ton steel we saves: - 1.5 tons of iron ore - 0.5 tons of coal - 40% of water which is necessary for the production of new steel
If we recycle 1 ton paper or cardboard we saves: - About 13 trees; - 2.5 barrels of oil; - 4100 kwh electricity; - 4 cubic meters of landfill volume; - 31,780 liters Water.
If we recycle 1 ton plastic waste we saves: - 2360 kWh electricity - 2.2 tons oil
If we recycle 1 ton of waste glass we saves: - 530 kWh electricity - 200 kg oil - 720 kg quartz sand - 300 kg calcined soda - 180 kg calcium oxide